After some digging, it was determined that someone with admin-like privileges on that POS machine was able to log these missing calls. I'm not sure if it was something set within the database or the POS machine but the culprit was definitely security privileges. These same differences in security were what made error handling in the POS crash instead of present the user friendly AX message for why the process failed. Unfortunately we never nailed this down but its definitely an issue.
In summary: Not having proper privileges in the AX 2012 for Retail POS can cause the following problems:
- POS will crash for error handling
- RetailLog table in Store DB will not log proper calls